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Six Veils Out of Seven: Retailer Shipments Under Granholm

On January 14, 2008, a district court in Texas rendered a mostly pro-trade decision in Siesta Village Market, LLC v. Perry that clarified much, but danced around the hottest issue, leaving the final veil in place.

The case upholds the basic Specialty Wine Retailers contention that a state that allows its retailers to deliver to consumers must permit direct shipment by out-of-state retailers. It also has some important things to say about the meaning of Granholm’s less pellucid passages. In particular, it attempts to deal with the most significant internal tension of the Granholm majority opinion, viz., the difficulty of squaring the holding of the opinion, that states cannot require out-of-state wineries to become residents as a condition to reaching local markets, with a dictum-within-a-dictum quoted from a 1990 Supreme Court case, North Dakota v. United States, to the effect that the 21st Amendment empowers states “to require that all liquor sold for use in the State be purchased from a licensed in-state wholesaler.” (For an explanation of the difference between holdings and dicta, see the blog post, Discrimination Against Out-of-State Retailers After Granholm).

The Siesta Village decision and its implications merit further discussion, in particular on the following points:

1. Texas had a “citizenship” requirement of at least a year’s residence in the state for most licenses. It had already been declared unconstitutional when applied to newly arriving wholesalers with physical premises within the state. Siesta Village goes farther by analyzing the statute as a location requirement and holding it unconstitutional on Commerce Clause grounds, to the extent it prevented issuance of the requisite retailing licenses to out-of-state retailers.

2. The Siesta Village judge takes Granholm as a location parity case, and his opinion is explicit that physical presence requirements “plainly discriminate against interstate commerce.” However, like every analyst of Granholm, he had to deal with a key question posed by the quotation from North Dakota, noted above: If a state has the right to require all wine to “be purchased from a licensed in-state wholesaler,” how does one give effect to the Commerce Clause policy against location discrimination? One way of resolving the issue is to require the state to accept methods of consummating the purchase requirement that do not substantially burden interstate commerce relative to local, such as running the sale through the local middle tier without requiring the wine to take an economically disadvantageous logistical path when sold by an out-of-state retailer. Another is to declare that the quotation is dicta and therefore not binding in applying the Granholm holding to a different chain of distribution where its effect on commerce is more problematic –rather too bold a departure to expect in a district court opinion. In the event, the judge simply let the contradiction lie, holding that the retailers have to comply with Texas laws requiring a state retail license and purchase from a Texas-licensed wholesaler, a deferral that has been described as a ticket to the next round of litigation. Meanwhile, the Texas Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission has informally commented that it is not their problem.

3. Experts disagree on the extent to which Granholm was a “weak record case” that could have gone the other way had the states made a better showing of regulatory problems, for example in tax collection and averting deliveries to underage recipients. Siesta Village takes the opposite view, and granted summary judgment, which means the court decided Texas failed to show substantial likelihood that, if it were afforded a full hearing, it would present evidence on which a judgment in its favor could be based. To win in a direct discrimination case a state would have to show there is no reasonable alternative to discrimination for achieving legitimate regulatory objectives. The court reads Granholm to say that the availability of licensing and modern communications makes such an argument inherently implausible, and comes close to saying a state can never prevail on the proposition that interstate delivery is more likely to cause underage drinking than intrastate delivery.

4. Another point of controversy among lawyers is whether the Commerce Clause is indifferent to whether a court cures discrimination by leveling up or down. Siesta Village takes the side of those who argue that it makes no sense to level down in enforcing a constitutional provision intended to encourage interstate trade, at least in the absence of a clear legislative statement requiring termination of in-state privileges in case of invalidity of interstate prohibition. In constitutional law terms, the Siesta Village judge may have discovered a penumbra to the Commerce Clause that would prevent courts from taking such simplistic approaches as counting the number of lines of statutory text that would have to be rewritten and picking the smaller revision.

5. Although Siesta Village rejected the wholesalers’ strange argument that the discrimination arose not from Texas’s intent, but from the happenstance of the plaintiffs’ locations, it indulged in dicta indicating states can adopt on-site-only laws, in which case the “accident of geography,” and not state discrimination, would be responsible for excluding remote sellers. It appeared to accept the reasoning that because there is no “direct shipment market” in those states, the remote sellers are not excluded from anything by the prohibition, which is arguably a flawed argument under the Commerce Clause, whose policy extends to disproportionate burden as well as overt discrimination.

Appeals seem likely. Meanwhile, the parties in Knightsbridge Wine Shoppe, LTD v. Jolly, who agreed to extend Granholm, at least temporarily, to non-producing retailers selling to California consumers, will presumably take up their cudgels on application of the Siesta Village analysis, versus that of the New York case, Arnold’s Wines, Inc. v. Boyle on September 9, 2007. In Arnold’s Wines, the New York federal district court dismissed a retailer suit without an evidentiary hearing, on the grounds that the state had a 21st Amendment right to require all sales to go through an in-state wholesaler, a proposition suggested by the vexing dictum in the Granholm opinion.

The Arnold’s Wines decision seems to miss Granholm’s point that a state may have the right to require all wine to go through three tiers, but does not have the right to apply its rule with location discrimination unless it provides evidence that its discrimination against interstate sellers is required by a legitimate state objective that cannot be achieved through nondiscriminatory means. The Siesta Village judge expressly declined to follow Arnold’s Wines, which it plausibly characterized as putting the 21st Amendment above the Commerce Clause, precisely what Granholm forbids.

2 Comments

  1. Has the industry considered sending a test case of an out-of-state retailer acting as an individual (vice corporation), and making a Privileges and Immunities Clause argument?

  2. It’s always interesting to get another slant on a complex set of issues. Those of us who daily live and breathe Granholm can suffer from narrowed focus because of the profound and fascinating implications of its Commerce Clause jurisprudence.

    The P&I clause of the 14th Amendment is the constitutional provision that prevents one state from requiring a passport of a traveling citizen of another state. The idea of invoking it to limit the power of states to grant effective monopolies to local businesses arose shortly after it was enacted, but in 1873 the Supreme Court rejected P&I as a source of right to engage in a business, limiting protected privileges to those that are inherently federal in origin. The loss is more theoretical than real, given the state-limiting power of the Commerce Clause.

    Today, privileges thought to fall within the P&I clause include passing freely from State to State, petitioning Congress for a redress of grievances, voting for national officers, entering public lands, being protected against violence while in the lawful custody of a United States marshal, and informing federal authorities of violation of federal law. There is a 19th century case that includes the right to engage in an interstate business, but it may be unnecessary to revive that theory in view of the robust protection provided by the Commerce Clause. The Siesta Village court explicitly nixes the local citizenship requirement on location inequality grounds, which are based on Commerce Clause requirements articulated in Granholm and in numerous cases on which Granholm relies.

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